Russia’s interference in the 2016 US presidential election and information warfare

According to the declassified report, Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections: The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution, the CIA, FBI and NSA have “high confidence” that Russian President Vladimir Putin “ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election” in order to “undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency.” The report also contends the Russian government “aspired to help President-elect Trump’s election chances when possible by discrediting Secretary Clinton and publicly contrasting her unfavorably to him.” See Russia and the U.S. Presidential Election (Jan. 17, 2017 IN10635) for the Congressional Research Service’s backgrounder.

Russian infomation warfare activities is the topic of Information Warfare: Russian Activities (Sept. 2, 2016 IN10563). From the report:

Russian doctrine typically refers to a holistic concept of “information war,” which is used to accomplish two primary aims:
•To achieve political objectives without the use of military force.
•To shape a favorable international response to the deployment of its military forces, or military forces with which Moscow is allied.

Tactics used to accomplish these goals include damaging information systems and critical infrastructure; subverting political, economic, and social systems; instigating “massive psychological manipulation of the population to destabilize the society and state”; and coercing targets to make decisions counter to their interests. Recent events suggest that Russia may be employing a mix of propaganda, misinformation, and deliberately misleading or corrupted disinformation in order to do so. And while Russian organizations appear to be using cyberspace as a primary medium through which these goals are achieved, the government also appears to potentially be using the physical realm to conduct more traditional influence operations including denying the deployment of troops in conflict areas and the use of online “troll armies” to propagate pro-Russian rhetoric.

These activities are placed in the larger context of US policy towards Russia in Russia: Background and U.S. Policy (Aug. 21, 2017 R44775). — Joe

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